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Those large national banks and some mid-size joint-stock commercial banks are also major originators of credit card ABS in the country. Contact us today for a conversation about your organization, your capital structure, and your cash investment needs. Nevertheless, while taking comfort from the mitigating effects of the extraordinary policy support currently at play, investors must remain vigilant. The uncertain nature of the current crisis, both in terms of its length as well as its potential breadth, leaves a lot of unknowns regarding its long-term implications for the U.S. economy, the U.S. consumer, and the path to recovery. Close monitoring of one’s portfolio, the changing dynamics of the pandemic, and its effects on the economy remain paramount to a resilient investment policy.

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On the other hand, in a controlled accumulation, principal payments are deposited into a trust account each month and held till the maturity date. The ability to earn substantial fees from originating and securitizing loans, coupled with the absence of any residual liability, skews the incentives of originators in favor of loan volume rather than loan quality. This is an intrinsic structural flaw in the loan-securitization market that was directly responsible for both the credit bubble of the mid-2000s as well as the credit crisis, and the concomitant banking crisis, of 2008.


The coronavirus pandemic heavily affected economic activity and employment in the US, resulting in a direct negative impact on household finances nationwide. Social isolation measures all but froze the U.S. economy in its tracks, ending the longest economic expansion in U.S. history. Importantly, the crisis also impacted consumers disproportionately, with the worst impact on industries typically employing lower income workers, such as hospitality and retail. Today, the unemployment rate remains above 10%, reflecting the extent of the damage, while consumer spending contracted dramatically as a result of financial strains and the decrease in spending opportunities that the lockdowns precipitated. Corporate-card lender Brex Inc., a 2017 startup backed by about $900 million in private-equity and debt capital, began looking at securitization as a potential strategy to diversify its funding sources in 2019. Asset backing refers to the total value of a company’s shares, in relation to its assets.

As companies collect on credit card payments, interest, and fees, cash flows that fund the principal and coupon payments of bonds are collected. The popularity of these securities began in 1987 as credit card use becomes more widespread. A significant advantage of asset-backed securities for loan originators is that they bring together a pool of financial assets that otherwise could not easily be traded in their existing form.

Each Depositor Insured To At Least $250,000 Per Insured Bank

S&P and any third-party providers, as well as their directors, officers, shareholders, employees or agents (collectively S&P Parties) do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, timeliness or availability of the Content. S&P Parties are not responsible for any errors or omissions , regardless of the cause, for the results obtained from the use of the Content, or for the security or maintenance of any data input by the user. Synchrony CCMNT has typically exhibited a significantly lower payment rate than the Private-Label CCQI, though it remained very stable–even during the 2008 recession. From 2007 to 2019, the annual average payment rate was 14.2%-16.8%, compared to 13.7%-19.3% for the Private-Label CCQI. Our base-case also reflects our retail partner simulations and remains well below the actual payment rate. Similar to other private-label retail trusts, we apply slightly higher haircuts to our base-case payment rate in our stress scenarios. The pool’s yield decreased in 2012 due to the diminishing effect of the discounting feature after the series 2009-SD certificates matured in January 2012. Despite this, yield continues to benefit from the addition of interchange fees in 2006 to finance charge receivables .

  • Card holders can choose to make the lump-sum payment on the purchase amount or make partial payment (subject to banks’ required minimum payment) and keep the remaining balance revolving.
  • Although the excess spread is often used as a credit enhancement, in the case of credit card ABSs, the issuer retains the right to the excess spread as a part of its profit in issuing credit cards.
  • Depending on the arrears aging bucket, different collection approaches, from auto-dial call-out and SMS messages to intensive recourse through third party or legal action, will be taken.
  • Golden Credit Card Trust is a master trust that issues notes through discrete series.
  • The securitization market has been reliable across market cycles, and has provided liquidity out to 30 years.

S&P Global Ratings currently does not rate Comenity or its parent, Alliance Data Systems Corp. The trust experienced historically low loss levels and delinquencies from 2012 to 2014 as the general economy improved after the Great Recession. However, since 2015, net losses have been trended upward to an 11-month average of 7.7% as of November 2020 from 5.1% in 2015. The master trust’s net loss rate has consistently exceeded the Private-Label CCQI’s net loss rate since early 2013 . In July 2020, co-branded Visa accounts related to Sony and Sony Playstation, totaling approximately $300 million were designated to the trust, representing the first instance of conveyance of co-branded credit card receivables to the trust.

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Our base-case yield assumption for Glacier is 17.00%, which is higher than the 15.00% for the Golden, Evergreen, and Trillium credit card trusts. However, this assumption is consistent with historical norms and reflects the characteristics of the collateral pool, including a lower proportion of convenience users and a higher proportion of APR in yield. Glacier’s yield, which consists predominately of credit charges (approximately 83% of total yield) and interchange (approximately 17% of total yield), is below other Canadian credit card ABS issuers and the Canadian CCQI . However, because we believe interchange may not be available to the trust if the card lender becomes insolvent, we generally do not assign any credit to interchange in our yield assumptions for the higher rating categories.

  • The outstanding series have a senior/subordinated structure consisting of class A, B and C notes.
  • CFI is the official provider of the Commercial Banking & Credit Analyst ™ certification program, designed to transform anyone into a world-class financial analyst.
  • In the rated Chinese credit card ABS transaction, exposure to ESG credit factors is indirect or mitigated by structural features, such as a diversified portfolio, regulatory supervision, and documented restrictions on counterparty activities.
  • S&P and any third-party providers, as well as their directors, officers, shareholders, employees, or agents (collectively S&P Parties) do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, timeliness, or availability of the Content.
  • The securities described on this web site are not FDIC insured and are not bank deposits, obligations or guarantees.

The payment rate could decline if the program contracts are not renewed upon an amortization stress scenario. We also assume the number of convenience users would decline before the first month of an amortization scenario and payment rates would likely experience a significant drop. As of August 2020, approximately 61.2% of obligors had paid down their balances in full each month. Our typical yield input range of 10.0%-13.0% at the ‘AAA’ stress level reflects our view that yield will immediately decline in an amortization scenario due to competitive pressures, low introductory and promotional rates, and restrictive pricing regulations. Accounts aged 60 months or more generate 91.3% of the receivables, and the average credit limit and average balance have been relatively consistent over the past several years.

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Risks impact the market value of the security when it is sold, cash flow from the security while it is held, and additional income made by reinvesting cash flows. Credit card asset-backed securities are split into the revolving period and amortization period. Rate reduction bonds came about as the result of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, which was designed to increase competition in the US electricity market. To avoid any disruptions while moving from a non-competitive to a competitive market, regulators have allowed utilities to recover certain “transition costs” over a period of time. Since consumers usually pay utility bills before any other, chargeoffs have historically been low. RRBs offerings are typically large enough to create reasonable liquidity in the aftermarket, and average life extension is limited by a “true up” mechanism.

  • Yield for the trust is relatively low due to the high credit quality of the obligors.
  • In addition to representing issuers and underwriters, we have significant experience representing credit enhancers, trustees, and investors in numerous credit card ABS transactions.
  • The proportion of funding raised through securitization may vary due to changes in business strategy.
  • We also considered the effect legislation or regulatory actions could have on interest rates, fees, and competitive pressures, which could also result in yield in the 10.0%-13.0% range.

For example, a higher payment rate results in shorter receivable life and lower exposure of the pool to losses over the transaction life. A higher portfolio yield may also contribute to more excess income, which can be used for coverage of asset losses if allowed by the transaction structure. The process of securitizing credit card receivables is like securitizing mortgages and other loan obligations.

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Our base-case assumption also reflects our view that interchange may not be available to the trust due to set-off risk if the card lender becomes insolvent and an expected reduction in new purchase volumes follows. Therefore, we generally do not assign any credit to interchange fees in the yield for the higher rating categories. The smaller ‘AAA,’ ‘A,’ and ‘BBB’ haircuts for Evergreen reflect our assumption that high-credit-quality, seasoned cardholders are likely to experience smaller increases in delinquencies than non-prime accounts in a downturn.

The investor interest is further split into smaller groups depending on the characteristics of the security. A second, and faster growing, portion of the student loan market consists of non-FFELP or private student loans. Though borrowing limits on certain types of FFELP loans were slightly increased by the student loan bill referenced above, essentially static borrowing limits for FFELP loans and increasing tuition are driving students to search for alternative lenders.

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Securitization is the action of pooling together cash flows from debt and selling it to third parties as securities. The securitization of credit cards began in the late 1980s as banks looked for new funding sources for credit cards.

U S And Canadian Credit Card Abs Review

CCCIT’s average payment rates have been increasing since 2009, averaging about 28.1% over the past two years, and have generally been in line with the U.S. For the past three years, the trust’s payment rates reached or approached historical highs, partly due to convenience users. We believe the receivables designated to the trust reflect a geographically diverse portfolio of well-seasoned prime accounts. The average credit limit and balance have been relatively stable for the past several years. As of September 2020, accounts older than 60 months generated 100.0% of the total receivables. In addition, the proportion of receivables with FICO scores greater than 720 has generally increased over the past several years, while the proportion with FICO scores less than 660 has declined. As of September 2020, FICO scores greater than 720 represent about 71.0% of the total trust, while FICO scores below 660 made up about 8.2%.

Net losses on the principal receivables in Discover Card Master Trust I doubled to a peak of 9.2% in August 2009 from a low of 4.6% in December 2007. By September 2010, loss rates declined below 8.0% and continued to fall steadily thereafter. Comparatively, U.S. Bankcard CCQI losses increased by 117.0% to 10.5% in August 2009 from 4.9% in December 2007 and remained in the 9.0%-10.0% range until September 2010. The class A notes benefit from the subordination of the class B and C notes, as well as a class D certificate. Based on the capital structure, the class B and C notes and the class D certificate provide 31.75% credit support to the class A notes.

The pool includes a high concentration of loans originated through alternative underwriting, and on investment properties. Although capital markets disruption from the pandemic, refinancing anda new capital rule all posed challenges for CRTs, the one government-sponsored enterprise that returned to the market after a few months’ absence was able to exceed 2019 issuance levels by year-end.

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Since all series in a master trust benefit from their pro-rata undivided interest in a single pool of credit card receivables, the rating agencies perform their credit analysis on all of the credit card receivables in the master trust for each series issued. Since credit card issuers can add receivables to the trust and change the terms on existing receivables, the credit risk of the underlying collateral in the master trust can change over time. The rating agencies continually monitor the performance of the receivables in trust. The pool of assets is typically a group of small and illiquid assets which are unable to be sold individually. The pools of underlying assets can include common payments from credit cards, auto loans, and mortgage loans, to esoteric cash flows from aircraft leases, royalty payments, or movie revenues. Subsequent chapters go into more detail on the various concepts discussed here. Asset-backed securities are bonds backed by financial assets, such as auto loans, mobile home loans, credit card loans, and student loans.

What is ABS credit card?

Asset-Backed Securitizations (ABS) provide credit card issuers with a method to reduce their funding costs by moving accounts off their books and into the hands of investors. … The investment is not for the mainstream investor, like you or me, but rather an institutional investor.

Despite the gradual increase in credit lines the company has granted to accounts over time, the trust balances have remained relatively stable. We attribute the increase in credit limits to the high concentration of highly seasoned accounts, which have longer payment histories and display more generally predictable behavior than newly originated accounts. As of September 2020, accounts aged more than 60 months generated 98.8% of the total receivables. Receivables with FICO scores greater than 720 accounted for 62.7% of the total trust, while receivables with FICO scores below 660 represented 10.6%. Assuming the pool’s collateral composition does not change, we believe the receivables will continue to perform well in 2021. We also consider adverse scenarios, such as insolvency of retail partners and the removal of receivables from the trust. Our charge-off assumptions are generally above the trusts’ current performance, and our payment rate and yield assumptions are generally below the trusts’ current performance.


“In addition, the performance data showed an increase in balloon payment defaults as borrowers likely faced difficulties obtaining refinancing commitments as a result of the pandemic,” the report stated. Also joining in the contribution were RBC Capital Markets, Appleby Ltd., Allen & Overy LLP, Milbank LLP, BNY Mellon, and Locke Lord LLP – each of whom was involved in the issuance of CIFC Funding 2021-IV, CIFC’s latest CLO. CIFC Asset Management announced this week it has established a philanthropic program – in connection with deal partners involved in its CLO issuance – that will raise funds for social, economic and environmental change. The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation. These include white papers, government data, original reporting, and interviews with industry experts. We also reference original research from other reputable publishers where appropriate. You can learn more about the standards we follow in producing accurate, unbiased content in oureditorial policy.

Private-label and co-branded cards account for 22.0% and 78.0% of the trust’s receivables, respectively. Overall, we believe the receivables designated to the trust have characteristics similar to other trusts in the Private-Label CCQI. Synchrony CCMNT’s yield averaged 25.2% as for the 11 months ended November 2020 and has increased slightly since our last shelf review in January 2019.

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A lack of consensus regarding the eventual replacement for the London interbank offered rate could cause turbulence for CLOs in the fourth quarter, according Bank of America Corp. The benchmark is widely used across the sector and set to go away by June 2023 at the latest.

If the principal is paid within the lock-up period, new loans will be added to the ABS with the principal payment that makes the pool of credit card receivables staying unchanged. A mortgage-backed security is sometimes considered a type of ABS but is more often classified as a separate variety of investment, especially in the U.S. Both operate in essentially the same way; the difference lies in the underlying assets in the portfolio. Mortgage-backed securities are formed by pooling together mortgages exclusively, while ABSs consist of any other type of loan or debt instrument . Asset-backed securities allow their issuers to raise cash, which can be used for lending or other investment purposes.

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