Interest Expense: Calculation, Formula and Examples

What is interest expense

Also not included in interest expense is any payment made toward the principal balance on a debt. For example, if a company pays $1 million to its creditors and $200,000 is applied toward the principal debt, then the interest expense is $800,000. You can also find this information on the company debt schedule, which should outline all of the business’s debts along with their balances and interest rates. Capital leases are the exception because you’re leasing an asset rather than borrowing money. The interest expense line item appears in the non-operating section of the income statement, because it is a non-core component of a company’s business model.

  • Operating expenses are related to the day-to-day operations of a business.
  • Your business’s income statement offers an in-depth look at its financing.
  • Your main home is where you live most of the time, such as a house, cooperative apartment, condominium, mobile home, house trailer, or houseboat.
  • The period is written as 0.25 because it’s one quarter of the year in relation to the 5% annual interest rate.
  • While mortgage interest is tax-deductible in the United States, it is not tax-deductible in Canada.
  • Interest expense refers to the cost of borrowing money and includes a company’s interest payments on any bonds, loans, convertible debt, and lines of credit.

If your business leases assets from another company, this might also generate an interest expense. Like other expenses, you can list interest expense deductions on your tax return. Because interest payments are a reduction to your business’s net income, this makes it tax-deductible. The interest expense deduction is something to keep in mind as a strategic way to reduce your tax burden if you need to finance assets for your business. Be sure to consult with a financial advisor to find the most advantageous rate and repayment schedule.


It is reported on the income statement as a non-operating expense, and is derived from such lending arrangements as lines of credit, loans, and bonds. Interest expense is usually a tax-deductible expense, which makes debt a lower-cost form of funding than equity. However, an excessive amount of debt also presents the risk of corporate failure if the borrower cannot meet its debt obligations. Thus, a prudent management team only incurs a modest amount of interest expense in relation to the asset base and earning power of a business. Interest expense relates to the cost of borrowing money.[1] It is the price that a lender charges a borrower for the use of the lender’s money. On the income statement, interest expense can represent the cost of borrowing money from banks, bond investors, and other sources.

What is interest expense

An interest expense is the cost incurred by an entity for borrowed funds. Interest expense is a non-operating expense shown on the income statement. It represents interest payable on any borrowings—bonds, loans, convertible debt or lines of credit.

Interest Expense Formula

It is essentially calculated as the interest rate times the outstanding principal amount of the debt. Interest expense on the income statement represents interest accrued during the period covered by the financial statements, and not the amount of interest paid over that period. While interest expense is tax-deductible for companies, in an individual’s case, it depends on their jurisdiction and also on the loan’s purpose. Interest expense refers to the cost of borrowing money and includes a company’s interest payments on any bonds, loans, convertible debt, and lines of credit. Interest expense also includes margin interest, which is charged in taxable brokerage accounts when borrowed funds are used to purchase investments.

The Motley Fool reaches millions of people every month through our premium investing solutions, free guidance and market analysis on, top-rated podcasts, and non-profit The Motley Fool Foundation. Our interest rate assumption will be set at a fixed 5%, and we’ll create a circularity switch (and name it “Circ”). The circular reference, i.e. “circularity”, occurs when a formula references back to its own cell either directly or indirectly. Volatility profiles based on trailing-three-year calculations of the standard deviation of service investment returns. Exchange-traded funds let an investor buy lots of stocks and bonds at once. Here we look at interest expense in the context of evaluating a company’s profitability, as well as its relevance for your personal finances.

Once you’ve calculated the expense, you can record it as an accrued liability. Suppose a company decided to raise $20 million in capital through issuances of loan with a long-term maturity near the end of 2021. Or, as an alternative solution, the beginning debt balance can also be used to avoid the circularity issue altogether. It does not take into account any fees or compounding interest over the time period.

How is this interest dealt with in business accounting, and what is an interest expense on the income statement? Operating income– or earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)– only includes sales revenue and operating expenses. It shows the profit the company derives from its core business activities. It excludes interest expense because it is not directly related to the day-to-day operations of the business.

What is the Interest Coverage Ratio?

Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization (EBITDA) is a figure that takes operating income and adds back in the costs of depreciation and amortization for the period. It is not a Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) approved figure, and it will not appear on the income statement. Interest expense is a general term used to describe the cost of borrowing money. It can have slightly different meanings depending on the context, but in corporate finance, interest expense is generally the primary financing expense on a company’s income statement. For example, if a company has a total of $100 million in debt at a fixed interest rate of 8%, the annual interest expense is calculated by multiplying the average debt principal by the interest rate.

What is interest expense

Compound interest, on the other hand, calculates both outstanding principal and accumulated interest that has “compounded” in previous periods. Qualified mortgage interest includes interest and points you pay on a loan secured by your main home or a second home. Your main home is where you live most of the time, such as a house, cooperative apartment, condominium, mobile home, house trailer, or houseboat.

Motley Fool Returns

Our simplified model assumes the mandatory repayment of the original principal is 2.0% per year. But to prevent a financial model from showing errors due to the endless loop of calculations – i.e. a “circularity” – a circularity switch is necessary, as we’ll soon demonstrate in our modeling tutorial. When calculating a company’s income, there may be several subcategories of income that include or exclude items such as interest expense. If one or more of your mortgages doesn’t fit into any of these categories, refer to Publication 936 to figure the amount of interest you can deduct as an itemized deduction. When you prepay interest, you must allocate the interest over the tax years to which the interest applies.

Effective Annual Interest Rate (EAR)

That would be indicative of a major issue with its ability to pay its interest expense on its debt obligations. The interest coverage ratio is a measure of a company’s ability to meet its interest expense obligations with its operating income. Assume ABC Company has a $10 million loan at a fixed interest rate of 8%. If ABC did not pay down its loan throughout the year and makes one payment at the end of the year, its annual interest expense will be $800,000. You can deduct investment interest expense against any investment income — but only if you itemize your tax deductions. The easiest way to avoid paying interest expense is to avoid buying stocks on margin.

How Interest Expenses Work

On the other hand, during periods of muted inflation, interest expense will be on the lower side. Julia Kagan is a financial/consumer journalist and former senior editor, personal finance, of Investopedia. We’ll now move to a modeling exercise, which you can access by filling out the form below. Founded in 1993, The Motley Fool is a financial services company dedicated to making the world smarter, happier, and richer.

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